Peanut butter is a new product of deep processing and appreciation of peanuts. It has a strong peanut flavor, and the quality is slippery. It is delicious and easy to digest and absorb. Peanut butter is rich in protein, fat, vitamins and other essential nutrients. It is a high-grade nutrition and food. Flower sauce is very popular internationally. In the United States, 55 percent of the flowers are used to produce flower sauce. In the 1980s, the development of peanut butter began in China. However, due to the technical problems of separation of oil sauce and solidification of the bottom of the peanut butter during storage, it is difficult to industrialize production. To this end, we applied the chemical theory of food chemistry and surfactants to develop a new method for the production of peanut butter – a new process for the production of butter sauce. 2 test part
1 Test materials and equipment
1) Huarenren: Commercially available, the quality meets the G B 15 33 - 8 6 standard.
2) Refined salt, glucose powder, sucrose, margarine, peanut oil, etc.
3) Food additives: Commercially available, the quality meets the G B 2 76 0 - 8 1 standard. 4) Main equipment: Far-infrared electric oven, vertical colloid mill, pulverizer, refrigerator, 80 0 centrifugal sedimentation device, etc.
2 Process Peanuts Renyi screening grading ~ Baking ~ Air-cooling to the red coat ~ Re-examination ~ Crushing ~ Rough grinding one Mixing ~ Fine grinding ~ Warm storage A low temperature storage, packaging ~ Finished product
3 Operating points
1) Baking is an important process to determine the flavor and color of peanut butter. Therefore, the peanut kernel should be screened and graded before baking to control the degree of baking. The baking temperature is between 140 ° C and 180 ° C, and the time is between 20 and 30 minutes. The roasted peanut kernels are light yellow, the surface oil is not decomposed, and the color is basically the same.
2) In order to ensure the sensory quality of peanut butter, the red dress will be removed to avoid the red dress entering the grinding process.
3) In order to avoid the outlet temperature of the sauce being too high and the residence time in the mill is too long, the process uses two grindings. When rough grinding, adjust the gap between the discs to o. s m m to about 1.2 m, adjust the flow of cooling water so that the outlet temperature of the sauce is around 60 °C. Adjust the grinding disc gap to 5 0 b m to 100 m during fine grinding, and the temperature of the sauce is about 65 °C.
During the compounding process, the emulsifier is added in proportion to the formula.
5) After the peanut butter is bottled, it should be stored at 3 °C to 8 °C for 24 to 48 hours. During the cold storage process, vibration and movement should be reduced.
4 Results and discussion Peanut butter is a multiphase dispersion system with solid phase (protein, etc.), liquid phase (water, oil), and is a heterogeneous thermodynamically unstable body.
After the peanut kernels are milled, the main components of the sauce are oils and solids, and the water content is only about 2%, so the main formation is W/O type suspoemulsion. The reason for the separation of the oil sauce is that the milled peanut butter has small dispersed particles, a large specific surface area, and a high surface area, so it is in a thermodynamically unstable state. At the beginning, the fine particles of the sauce are in a random Brownian motion, causing the oil phase to form small oil droplets; the solid molecules move toward the solid phase, and the small particles spontaneously coalesce into larger particles. According to the t S okes theory, the sedimentation velocity u of a small round particle in a viscous liquid can be expressed by the following formula: 29 yield (d , a d 2 ) gu , where: u a settling velocity, the sign of u is the direction of small particle movement G-gravity constant two small particle radius uf a liquid viscosity d; dZ a small particle and liquid density in peanut butter, the density d of the solid small particles is greater than the density d Z of the oil droplets, so the oil droplets float up, eventually rise A pure oil phase (layering) is formed to the top of the sauce, while the solids sink to the bottom, thereby forming a separation of the oil sauce. In order to solve the separation of oil sauce, we proceeded from the above mechanism, rationally selected emulsifiers, stabilizers and designed new processes.
Since the peanut butter has a water content of less than 3 %, the general emulsifier does not work. Therefore, the emulsifier chosen must be emulsified at low water levels. The test used single vinegar as an emulsifier and compared with the emulsification effects of glycerin and soybean phospholipids. The results are shown in the attached table. Tests have shown that the peanut butter prepared by adding single Gankuo has high stability, good mouthfeel and good wind taste. The amount of emulsifier must be added in an appropriate amount, the amount is too small, the emulsification is incomplete, and the amount is too much, which affects the mouthfeel and flavor of the sauce. The amount of single vinegar added is 1.5%.
At 20%, the overall effect is better.
3 The basic formula of peanut butter is (unit: kg) peanut kernel 100; refined salt 1.8; single vinegar 1. 8; sucrose 5; margarine; 4 glucose 2; 5 peanut oil; 4 antioxidant 0. 0 15 . Through research, the types of emulsifiers and stabilizers and the amount of additives were determined. Such a formulation and process effectively solves the problem of separation of the soy sauce. The process is in line with China's national conditions, the production equipment is all localized, the process is simple, the investment is small, easy to operate, and has good promotion and use value.
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