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Peanut Butter Quality Analysis and peanut butter benefits

Peanut Butter Quality Analysis and peanut butter benefits

Peanut belongs to the family Leguminosae and originated from the tropical and subtropical regions of South America. At present, there are 6075 peanut germplasms preserved in China's genebank, and the quality of different varieties is significantly different.
In recent years, with the increase of peanut production and the development of food processing technology in China, peanut oil, peanut protein products, peanut beverages, functional extracts of peanuts and peanut snack foods, which mainly include peanut processing products, occupy a certain market [3]. .
As one of the snack foods, peanut butter accounts for 37% of the current consumption of peanuts in China. It is rich in vegetable protein, vitamins (nicotinic acid, vitamin E, etc.) and minerals. It is rich in nutrients and unique in flavor. It is a good meal and Seasoning [5]. At present, the consumption of peanut butter in China has gradually increased, and its processing technology has reached maturity [6], but the influence of different peanut varieties on the quality of peanut butter preparation is still unclear.
Therefore, this paper uses peanut butter as the entry point, collects 6 peanut varieties in China, analyzes and compares the quality of the six varieties of peanut butter prepared, and lays a foundation for screening peanut-specific varieties for peanut butter, and can also avoid enterprises in producing peanut butter. Blind selection of peanut varieties, while providing theoretical basis and reference for breeding researchers.

1 Materials and methods
1.1 Materials and Instruments
Six peanut varieties were collected from the national peanut planting areas, and the varieties and sources are shown in Table 1.

Methanol (chromatographically pure) Merk, USA; potassium iodide (AR), chloroform (AR), glacial acetic acid (AR), sodium thiosulfate (AR), anhydrous sodium sulfate (AR), ascorbic acid (AR) Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd.; SB-780 gas chromatograph Japan SHIMADZU company; FCJ011034 automatic Kjeldahl nitrogen analyzer, Soxtec Avanti 2050 automatic Soxhlet total fat analysis system Sweden Foss company; 848 potentiometric titrator Swiss Metromn company; 3K15 high speed refrigerated centrifuge American sigma company; V-classic vortex mixer Italy VELP company; colloid mill JM-80J Langfang General Machinery Co., Ltd.; U V-3010 UV-visible spectrophotometer Japan Hitachi company.

1.2 Experimental methods
1.2.1 Preparation of Peanut Butter: Shelled Peanuts → Selection → Baking → Cooling → Going Red → One Milling → Mixing → Secondary Milling → Canning → Sealing → Storage

Operation points:

Selection: Manually remove peanuts containing insects and mildew, and remove impurities such as sandstone and metal.

Baking: Bake the peanuts to 150 °C for 30 minutes, until the color of the peanuts inside and outside is the same, remove the individual over-flavored peanuts.

Cooling: Cool the selected roasted peanuts to about 40 °C at room temperature.

Go to the red dress: Remove the cooled roasted peanuts from the red dress, and the red dress rate should be over 98%.

One-time grinding: Once grinding for rough grinding, first adjust the rotating head of the colloid mill to a certain position, and then pulverize the roasted peanuts into a sauce.

Mixing: Add a certain proportion of sugar and salt to the sauce. The sugar accounts for 5% of the roasted peanuts, and the salt accounts for 1% of the roasted peanuts.

Secondary grinding: The grinding head of the colloid mill is used to modulate the grinding position, and the mixed sauce is poured into the grinding for fine grinding.

Packing: According to different storage conditions, each sample is separately filled into the tank with the same quality, sealed and stored.

1.2.2 The sensory evaluation of peanut butter consists of 8 food professionals. The evaluation and training of peanut butter quality characteristics are carried out several times before evaluation. The color, aroma, tissue state, mouthfeel, spreadability and overall acceptability of the sample were scored on a 9-point scale. Each member was individually evaluated for each indicator, and each sample was rinsed with water before evaluation to exclude the influence of the previous sample. The scoring criteria are shown in Table 2 [7-8].

1.2.3 Determination of the basic components of peanut butter Water: Refer to GB / T 50093-2010 Determination of moisture in food; Determination of crude protein content: Refer to GB / T 14489.2-2008 grain and oil to test the determination of crude protein in vegetable oil; Determination of crude fat content : Refer to GB / T 14772 -2008 Determination of crude fat in food; Ash: Refer to GB / T 50094 -2010 Determination of ash in food; Crude fiber: GB / T 6434-2006 Determination of crude fiber content in feed; Total sugar: Refer to Dubis (1956). Determination of fatty acid composition and content: Refer to GB/T 5413.27-2010 Determination of fatty acid content in infant foods and dairy products.

1.2.4 Peanut Butter Texture Analysis The prepared peanut butter was measured using a TA-TX 2i physical property meter. Measurement conditions: Operating mode TPA, the probe is ABE35, the pre-measuring speed is 2.0 mm / s, the test speed is 1.0 mm / s, the pressing distance is 10 mm, and the measured speed is 1.0 mm / s.

1.2.5 Peanut Butter Stability Determination of Oxidation Value (POV): Refer to GB/T 5538-2005 Determination of peroxide value of animal and vegetable oils; Determination of acid value (AV): Refer to GB/T 5530-2005 Animal and vegetable fats and oils Determination of value and acidity; Determination of iodine value (IV): Refer to GB/T 5532-2008 Determination of iodine value of animal and vegetable oils;

Determination of centrifugal emulsion rate: Take the prepared peanut butter sample, let it stand at room temperature for 24 h, take 10 m L into the centrifuge tube, centrifuge at 4500 °C for 20 min at 20 °C, and read out the oil separation volume. The average value of each sample was measured three times in parallel, and the centrifugal emulsion rate was calculated by the following formula: Centrifugal emulsion rate (%) = oil separation volume (m L) / total volume of centrifuged peanut butter (m L ) × 100 [7] .

1.2.6 Data processing Microsoft Excel was used for data collation, and SPSS software package was used for variance analysis and correlation analysis. The significance test was performed by F test, taking α = 0.05. The number of repetitions was determined to be n = 3.

2 results and discussion
2.1 Peanut Butter Quality Analysis
2.1.1 Analysis of Sensory Quality of Different Varieties of Peanut Butter As can be seen from Table 3, the peanut butter prepared by different varieties has different degrees of difference in color, flavor and taste. According to the overall score, the peanut butter prepared by the variety Huayu 20 is known. The sensory quality is the best, the overall acceptability score is up to 8.0 points, and the scores of the other varieties of four red, rose, etc. are above 6.0, which is mainly affected by color and mouthfeel. The hardness and viscosity of different varieties of peanut butter were determined by texture analyzer. The results showed that the hardness and viscosity of different peanut butter varieties were different, ranging from 87.65~153.11 g and 65.74~113.37 g, respectively. The most hardness and viscosity varieties were rose. Red, the smallest is Shanhua No. 9. Studies have shown that the mouthfeel, smear and the like in the sensory score have a certain correlation with the viscosity measured by the physical property meter. The viscoelasticity measured by the instrument can predict the mouthfeel in the sensory score, that is, the viscosity at the first mouth, and the mouthfeel is smoother. The hardness and viscosity values of the samples were lower in the instrumental measurements [9], which is consistent with the results of this study. The color difference of different varieties of peanut butter was measured by color difference meter. Although the color of different varieties had certain differences, the range of color value between different varieties was relatively small, indicating that the baking degree of different varieties of peanuts was similar. Cecilia et al. [5] reported the color of peanut butter. When the L* value is 50 ± 1, the color of the sauce is good, which has a certain influence on the appearance of the product and the overall acceptability of the consumer. The difference between this experiment and its research is small, and the closest variety to this value is four. Grain red.

Table 2 Peanut sauce sensory scoring standard Table 2 Standard of peanut butter for sensory evaluation
Table 2 Peanut sauce sensory scoring standard Table 2 Standard of peanut butter for sensory evaluation
Table 3 Sensory evaluation of six varieties of peanut butter Table 3 Sensory evaluation of six peanut butter

Table 3 Sensory evaluation of six varieties of peanut butter Table 3 Sensory evaluation of six peanut butter
Note: The letters (a, b, c, d, e, and f) represent the significance of the differences between the varieties (p ≤ 0.05).

Table 4 Instrument analysis of 6 varieties of peanut butter Table 4 Instrumental analysis of six peanut butter

Table 4 Instrument analysis of 6 varieties of peanut butter Table 4 Instrumental analysis of six peanut butter
Note: The letters (a, b, c, d, e and f) represent the significance of the differences between the varieties (p ≤ 0.05); L*: brightness (black = 0°, white = 100°); C*: color Angular saturation; H: Chromaticity (0° = red, 90° = yellow).

Table 5 Nutritional composition analysis of 6 varieties of peanut butter Table 5 The physicochemical and nutritional quality analysis of six peanut butter

Table 5 Nutritional composition analysis of 6 varieties of peanut butter Table 5 The physicochemical and nutritional quality analysis of six peanut butter
Note: The letters (a, b, c, d, e and f) represent the significance of the differences between the varieties (p ≤ 0.05); in addition to the moisture content, the conventional indicators are based on the dry basis.

2.1.2 Analysis of Physicochemical Nutritional Quality of Peanut Sauces of Different Varieties The nutrient content and content of peanut butter play a very important role in the quality of the final product.
The fat and protein content of peanut butter ranged from 46.35% to 50.07% and 22.37% to 27.29%, respectively. From the analysis of variance, there were some differences in fat and protein among different varieties. The highest protein content was Shanhua 9 And four reds.
Navnitkumar K et al. [10] analyzed the quality of seven varieties of peanut butter in India, and the results showed that the difference in fat and protein content between different varieties of peanut butter was small.
Chun's research indicates that there is little change between the physical and chemical nutrition quality indexes of raw peanuts in the preparation of peanut butter. It can be seen that there is no significant difference in the physical and chemical quality loss of peanut during the preparation of peanut butter; and the difference in physical and chemical quality between peanuts of different varieties is small. The highest content of peanut fatty acid composition is oleic acid and linoleic acid.
Ozcan et al.] showed that the difference in oleic acid and linoleic acid content during peanut preparation of peanut butter was small;
Savage et al [and Lopez and other studies have shown that the ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid (O / L) is an important indicator to measure the storability of peanut raw materials and their products. The higher the ratio, the more stable the oil quality; oleic acid has To reduce cholesterol, regulate blood lipids, lower blood sugar and other important physiological functions, the nutrition community refers to oleic acid as a "safety fatty acid", and its content is an important indicator for assessing the quality of oil.
Therefore, the quality of peanut butter is greatly affected by oleic acid and linoleic acid. The oleic acid and linoleic acid content of peanut varieties selected in this experiment ranged from 18.27 to 21.63 and 16.73 to 19.91, respectively. The variety is four red; O/L value varies from 1.0 to 1.14, and the coefficient of variation is 4.54%, indicating that the oleic acid and linoleic acid content of the six varieties of peanuts selected in this experiment have similar effects on the quality of peanut butter. .

2.1.3 Stability Analysis of Peanut Butter of Different Varieties The initial stability of six varieties of peanut butter is shown in Figure 1. The peroxide value is usually used to measure the oxidation degree of the initial oxidation of oil, and the variation range is 0.004 ~ 0.16 g / 100g. The highest peroxide value is 阜花19
The lowest is four red, the peroxide value is lower, indicating that the initial stability of the peanut butter is better, and it is not easy to cause oxidative rancidity. Cecilia et al. [8] mainly measure the high oleic acid with the change of peroxide value. The stability of the common oleic acid peanut butter showed that the peanut butter prepared by the high oleic peanut had better stability, that is, the lowest peroxide content, so the initial oxidation stability of the four reds was relatively good.
The acid value varies from 0.17 to 0.51 g [KOH]/100 g, and the lowest acid value is four red. The larger the acid value, the greater the degree of oxidative deterioration of the oil, indicating that the initial acid value of different varieties of peanut butter is significant. The difference. The iodine value ranged from 100.62 to 106.45 g /100g, and the coefficient of variation was 2.34%, indicating that there was no significant difference in iodine value between different varieties, while Ozcan et al. [12] did not significantly study the iodine value of different varieties of peanut butter. The difference is consistent with the results of this experimental study.
The centrifugal emulsion rate ranged from 10.76% to 16.17%, and the coefficient of variation was 15.92%, indicating that the difference in eccentricity values between different varieties was small. The lowest value was osmanthus 30, followed by four red and rose, centrifuged. The lower the milking rate, the smaller the degree of oil separation of peanut butter and the better the stability effect. Li Lingfeng et al [7] and Vandana [17] found that the stability of peanut butter was better when the eccentricity was lower. According to the coefficient of variation of peroxide value, acid value and eccentricity (73.64%,

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